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Later in the season it is clearly stated that vampires can't get drunk. This is similar to a practice of " anti-vampire burial ": Decapitation was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks or away from the body.
The vampire's head, body, or clothes could also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising. Romani people drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial.
They also placed hawthorn in the corpse's sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs. In a 16th-century burial near Venice , a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body.
In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism.
In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken.
For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure. In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was placed in the mouth of suspected vampires.
Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries.
Blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the devil was considered synonymous with the vampire.
Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. The Persians were one of the first civilisations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies,  and estries , female shape-changing, blood-drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims.
According to Sefer Hasidim , estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested. An injured estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker.
Greco-Roman mythology described the Empusae ,  the Lamia ,  and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively.
Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze -footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood.
They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix , a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.
Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants,   though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant.
He linked this event to the lack of a shmirah guarding after death as the corpse could be a vessel for evil spirits. Vampires proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 17th and 18th centuries.
These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized. One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia , in Local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow.
The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.
During the 18th century, there was a frenzy of vampire sightings in Eastern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants.
Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food.
When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood.
The two incidents were well-documented. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe.
The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.
In , King James wrote a dissertation on witchcraft titled Daemonologie in which he wrote the belief that demons could possess both the living and the dead.
Within his classification of demons , he explained the concept through the notion that incubi and succubae could possess the corpse of the deceased and walk the earth.
As a devil borrows a dead body, it would seem so visibly and naturally to any man who converses with them and that any substance within the body would remain intolerably cold to others which they abuse.
In the Greek librarian of the Vatican, Leo Allatius , produced the first methodological description of the Balkan beliefs in vampires Greek: From , Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, a subject resumed by Otto in , and then by Michael Ranft in The subject was based on the observation that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs.
Theologians and clergymen also address the topic. Some theological disputes arose. The non-decay of vampires' bodies could recall the incorruption of the bodies of the saints of the Catholic Church.
A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione , On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini Pope Benedict XIV.
In other words, vampires did not exist. Dom Augustine Calmet , a French theologian and scholar, published a comprehensive treatise in titled Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants which investigated the existence of vampires, demons, and spectres.
Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed judicial reports of vampiric incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well, using the scientific method in his analysis to come up with methods for determining the validity for cases of this nature.
As he stated in his treatise: These revenants are called by the name of oupires or vampires, that is to say, leeches ; and such particulars are related of them, so singular, so detailed, and invested with such probable circumstances and such judicial information, that one can hardly refuse to credit the belief which is held in those countries, that these revenants come out of their tombs and produce those effects which are proclaimed of them.
Calmet had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and numerous supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed.
These vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries.
The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption ; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite.
The controversy in Austria only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten , to investigate the claims of vampiric entities.
He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics.
Other European countries followed suit. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local folklore. Classified as vampires, all share the thirst for blood.
Various regions of Africa have folktales featuring beings with vampiric abilities: The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo.
The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou meaning "werewolf" and is common in the culture of Mauritius. During the late 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England , particularly in Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut.
There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never used to describe the dead.
The deadly disease tuberculosis , or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.
Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.
Vampires have appeared in Japanese cinema since the late s; the folklore behind it is western in origin. There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night.
The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women.
They also prefer to eat entrails specifically the heart and the liver and the phlegm of sick people. The Malaysian Penanggalan is a woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklore to be dark or demonic in nature.
She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women. She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children.
Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.
This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s.
In modern fiction, the vampire tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons.
In early local press spread rumours that a vampire haunted Highgate Cemetery in London. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery.
Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the " Highgate Vampire " and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.
Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend. In , a physics professor at the University of Central Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for vampires to exist, based on geometric progression.
According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January , and it fed once a month which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore , and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.
In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra "goat-sucker" of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals , leading some to consider it a kind of vampire.
The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mids. In Europe, where much of the vampire folklore originates, the vampire is usually considered a fictitious being; many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes.
In some cases, especially in small localities, beliefs are still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. In Romania during February , several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire.
They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it. Vampirism and the vampire lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day's occultist movements.
An alternative collective noun is a "house" of vampires. Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of vampire beliefs and related mass hysteria.
Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body's decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in vampires.
Paul Barber in his book Vampires, Burial and Death has described that belief in vampires resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.
People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred.
Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known.
This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.
Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth.
This causes the body to look "plump", "well-fed", and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life.
In the Arnold Paole case , an old woman's exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life.
Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus.
The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".
After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw.
This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".
It has also been hypothesized that vampire legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time.
In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape.
In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding". An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies.
Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community.
As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague , it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.
In biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and vampire folklore.
Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem , he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream.
Thus vampires were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms. The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease.
Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional bloodsucking vampires with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood.
In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Rabies has been linked with vampire folklore.
The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns thus becoming nocturnal and hypersexuality.
Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection an allusion to the legend that vampires have no reflection.
Wolves and bats , which are often associated with vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.
In his treatise On the Nightmare , Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that vampires are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms.
Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same.
From this arises the belief that folkloric vampires and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first. In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety.
This may lead to repression , which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread. The sexual aspect may or may not be present.
People identify with immortal vampires because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.
The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus -like behaviour.
Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious. Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism ; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.
The reinvention of the vampire myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. In his entry for "Vampires" in the Dictionnaire philosophique , Voltaire notices how the midth century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of vampires but that now "there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted.
These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces". Marx defined capital as "dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks".
A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Peter Kürten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called "vampires" in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered.
Similarly, in , an unsolved murder case in Stockholm , Sweden was nicknamed the " Vampire murder ", because of the circumstances of the victim's death.
Vampire lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture , who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films , the fiction of Anne Rice , and the styles of Victorian England.
Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional vampire lore.
Vampire bats were integrated into vampire folklore after they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century. The three species of vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory.
It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from and the zoological not until The vampire bat's bite is usually not harmful to a person, but the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leaves the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim's skin.
The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it.
The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. Such fiction began with 18th-century poetry and continued with 19th-century short stories, the first and most influential of which was John Polidori 's The Vampyre , featuring the vampire Lord Ruthven.
The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel in history: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the vampire's profile: Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.
Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: This was in reality authored by Byron's personal physician, John Polidori , who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, "Fragment of a Novel" , also known as "The Burial: The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.
Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid- Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest , which first appeared from to in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.
It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney. Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.
No effort to depict vampires in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as Bram Stoker 's Dracula The vampiric traits described in Stoker's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional vampire.
Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and Carmilla , Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires.
The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in , but it was released in as Dracula's Guest. The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics.
It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil. This formula was followed in novelist Anne Rice's highly popular and influential Vampire Chronicles — The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J.
Ward 's Black Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular vampire books which appeal to teenagers and young adults.
Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.
Hamilton 's erotic Anita Blake: Vampire Hunter series, and Kim Harrison 's The Hollows series, portray the vampire in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends.
Vampires in the Twilight series — by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status.
Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries.
Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes , and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it.