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Turbos VideoFord mustang Diesel with 3 turbos!!
Intake air temperature of deg F. Now taking 2 compressor maps we can compare what would be a good turbo to use for this motor.
We will just randomly take 3 turbos that would be a popular choice for this engine combination. A T66, T76 and T Now you can take some reference points from the above air consumption chart and see where the engine would fall in the efficiency of the turbo.
Now looking at the compressor maps above for reference. Beyond this is what you se see above of the compressor maps denoted by a steep descend in the compressor speed lines.
Now you can see from above how a turbo selection can greatly effect your setup depending on your wants for the setup.
Below I have linked several charts for some combos that are used quite often. Remember though this is just a map to get you going in the right direction.
Parameters like large frame and small frame are not put into the function, nor is the flange type. For any added help in your selection contact us.
To make it easier for some click on the links below to pull the chart up and being with your selection process. You can cross-reference the consumption charts with our compressor maps here.
Turbo Cam Selection How to select a turbo cam. Overlap is 15 Degrees of overlap. What are the different flanges and what are the sizes?
All most all of your turbo head units come with the flanges described below. The flange plays a role in spool up, backpressure The rule of thumb here is use the largest flange you can possibly fit.
Of course this will be limited by what headers you use, since most are pre-fabbed and come with a flange already, and under hood space will also be a limitation.
Basic T4 Basic T6. Should always be GT. Range denomination based on the size of the turbine wheels and the turbine housing. Corresponds to the diameter of the compressor wheel in mm In the event that the wheel is bigger than mm only the last two figures are used.
These are used to designate the specific characteristics of each model, according to the following table: Variable nozzle turbochargers VAT.
Compressor wheel without nuts. A double hole in the turbine housing bypass. In general, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel the larger the flow capacity.
Measurements and shapes can vary, as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels. Small turbochargers spin quickly, but may not have the same performance at high acceleration.
Twin-turbo or bi-turbo designs have two separate turbochargers operating in either a sequence or in parallel.
In a sequential setup one turbocharger runs at low speeds and the second turns on at a predetermined engine speed or load.
Two-stage variable twin-turbos employ a small turbocharger at low speeds and a large one at higher speeds. They are connected in a series so that boost pressure from one turbocharger is multiplied by another, hence the name "2-stage.
Twin turbochargers are primarily used in Diesel engines. Both turbochargers operate together in mid range, with the larger one pre-compressing the air, which the smaller one further compresses.
A bypass valve regulates the exhaust flow to each turbocharger. At higher speed 2, to 3, RPM only the larger turbocharger runs. Smaller turbochargers have less turbo lag than larger ones, so often two small turbochargers are used instead of one large one.
This configuration is popular in engines over 2, CCs and in V-shape or boxer engines. Twin-scroll or divided turbochargers have two exhaust gas inlets and two nozzles, a smaller sharper angled one for quick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance.
With high-performance camshaft timing, exhaust valves in different cylinders can be open at the same time, overlapping at the end of the power stroke in one cylinder and the end of exhaust stroke in another.
In twin-scroll designs, the exhaust manifold physically separates the channels for cylinders that can interfere with each other, so that the pulsating exhaust gasses flow through separate spirals scrolls.
With common firing order , two scrolls of unequal length pair cylinders and This lets the engine efficiently use exhaust scavenging techniques, which decreases exhaust gas temperatures and NOx emissions, improves turbine efficiency, and reduces turbo lag evident at low engine speeds.
Cut-out of a twin-scroll exhaust and turbine; the dual "scrolls" pairing cylinders 1, 4 and 2, 3 are clearly visible.
Variable-geometry or variable-nozzle turbochargers use moveable vanes to adjust the air-flow to the turbine, imitating a turbocharger of the optimal size throughout the power curve.
Their angle is adjusted by an actuator to block or increase air flow to the turbine. The result is that the turbocharger improves fuel efficiency without a noticeable level of turbocharger lag.
The compressor increases the mass of intake air entering the combustion chamber. The compressor is made up of an impeller, a diffuser and a volute housing.
The flow range of a turbocharger compressor can be increased by allowing air to bleed from a ring of holes or a circular groove around the compressor at a point slightly downstream of the compressor inlet but far nearer to the inlet than to the outlet.
The ported shroud is a performance enhancement that allows the compressor to operate at significantly lower flows. It achieves this by forcing a simulation of impeller stall to occur continuously.
Allowing some air to escape at this location inhibits the onset of surge and widens the operating range. While peak efficiencies may decrease, high efficiency may be achieved over a greater range of engine speeds.
Increases in compressor efficiency result in slightly cooler more dense intake air, which improves power. This is a passive structure that is constantly open in contrast to compressor exhaust blow off valves, which are mechanically or electronically controlled.
The ability of the compressor to provide high boost at low rpm may also be increased marginally because near choke conditions the compressor draws air inward through the bleed path.
Ported shrouds are used by many turbocharger manufacturers. The center hub rotating assembly CHRA houses the shaft that connects the compressor impeller and turbine.
It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. For instance, in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil.
The CHRA may also be considered "water-cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant. Water-cooled models use engine coolant to keep lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil coking destructive distillation of engine oil from the extreme heat in the turbine.
The development of air- foil bearings removed this risk. Ball bearings designed to support high speeds and temperatures are sometimes used instead of fluid bearings to support the turbine shaft.
This helps the turbocharger accelerate more quickly and reduces turbo lag. When the pressure of the engine's intake air is increased, its temperature also increases.
This occurrence can be explained through Gay-Lussac's law , stating that the pressure of a given amount of gas held at constant volume is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature.
In addition, heat soak from the hot exhaust gases spinning the turbine will also heat the intake air. The warmer the intake air, the less dense, and the less oxygen available for the combustion event, which reduces volumetric efficiency.
Not only does excessive intake-air temperature reduce efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation , which is destructive to engines.
To compensate for the increase in temperature, turbocharger units often make use of an intercooler between successive stages of boost to cool down the intake air.
A charge air cooler is an air cooler between the boost stage s and the appliance that consumes the boosted air. There are two areas on which intercoolers are commonly mounted.
It can be either mounted on top, parallel to the engine, or mounted near the lower front of the vehicle. Top-mount intercoolers setups will result in a decrease in turbo lag, due in part by the location of the intercooler being much closer to the turbocharger outlet and throttle body.
This closer proximity reduces the time it takes for air to travel through the system, producing power sooner, compared to that of a front-mount intercooler which has more distance for the air to travel to reach the outlet and throttle.
Front-mount intercoolers can have the potential to give better cooling compared to that of a top-mount. The area in which a top-mounted intercooler is located, is near one of the hottest areas of a car, right above the engine.
This is why most manufacturers include large hood scoops to help feed air to the intercooler while the car is moving, but while idle, the hood scoop provides little to no benefit.
Even while moving, when the atmospheric temperatures begin to rise, top-mount intercoolers tend to underperform compared to that of a front-mount intercooler.
With more distance to travel, the air circulated may have more time to cool and is located away from high temperature locations of the car, front-mount intercoolers can provide more beneficial cooling compared to that of a top-mount intercooler.
An alternative to intercooling is injecting water into the intake air to reduce the temperature. This method has been used in automotive and aircraft applications.
Adding the mixture to intake of the turbocharged engines decreased operating temperatures and increased horse power. Turbocharged engines today run high boost and high engine temperatures to match.
When injecting the mixture into the intake stream, the air is cooled as the liquids evaporate. Inside the combustion chamber it slows the flame, acting similar to higher octane fuel.
In addition to the use of intercoolers, it is common practice to add extra fuel to the intake air known as "running an engine rich" for the sole purpose of cooling.
The amount of extra fuel varies, but typically reduces the air-fuel ratio to between 11 and 13, instead of the stoichiometric The extra fuel is not burned as there is insufficient oxygen to complete the chemical reaction , instead it undergoes a phase change from atomized liquid to gas.
This phase change absorbs heat, and the added mass of the extra fuel reduces the average thermal energy of the charge and exhaust gas.
Even when a catalytic converter is used, the practice of running an engine rich increases exhaust emissions. A wastegate regulates the exhaust gas flow that enters the exhaust-side driving turbine and therefore the air intake into the manifold and the degree of boosting.
Turbocharged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm require a large volume of air to flow between the turbocharger and the inlet of the engine.
When the throttle is closed, compressed air flows to the throttle valve without an exit i. In this situation, the surge can raise the pressure of the air to a level that can cause damage.
This is because if the pressure rises high enough, a compressor stall occurs—stored pressurized air decompresses backward across the impeller and out the inlet.
The reverse flow back across the turbocharger makes the turbine shaft reduce in speed more quickly than it would naturally, possibly damaging the turbocharger.
To prevent this from happening, a valve is fitted between the turbocharger and inlet, which vents off the excess air pressure. These are known as an anti-surge, diverter, bypass, turbo-relief valve, blow-off valve BOV , or dump valve.
It is a pressure relief valve , and is normally operated by the vacuum from the intake manifold. The primary use of this valve is to maintain the spinning of the turbocharger at a high speed.
The air is usually recycled back into the turbocharger inlet diverter or bypass valves , but can also be vented to the atmosphere blow off valve.
Recycling back into the turbocharger inlet is required on an engine that uses a mass-airflow fuel injection system, because dumping the excessive air overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor causes an excessively rich fuel mixture—because the mass-airflow sensor has already accounted for the extra air that is no longer being used.
Valves that recycle the air also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbocharger after sudden engine deceleration, since load on the turbocharger when the valve is active is much lower than if the air charge vents to atmosphere.
A free floating turbocharger is the simplest type of turbocharger. Free floating turbochargers produce more horsepower because they have less backpressure, but are not driveable in performance applications without an external wastegate.
Also in , Chevrolet introduced a special run of turbocharged Corvairs , initially called the Monza Spyder — and later renamed the Corsa — , which mounted a turbocharger to its air cooled flat six cylinder engine.
Today, turbocharging is common on both diesel and gasoline-powered cars. Turbocharging can increase power output for a given capacity  or increase fuel efficiency by allowing a smaller displacement engine.
The first production turbocharger diesel passenger car was the Garrett-turbocharged  Mercedes SD introduced in The Audi R10 with a diesel engine even won the 24 hours race of Le Mans in , and Since then, few turbocharged motorcycles have been produced.
This is partially due to an abundance of larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines being available that offer the torque and power benefits of a smaller displacement engine with turbocharger, but do return more linear power characteristics.
As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. However, since the charge in the cylinders is pushed in by this air pressure, the engine normally produces only half-power at full throttle at this altitude.
Pilots would like to take advantage of the low drag at high altitudes to go faster, but a naturally aspirated engine does not produce enough power at the same altitude to do so.
The table below is used to demonstrate the wide range of conditions experienced. As seen in the table below, there is significant scope for forced induction to compensate for lower density environments.
A turbocharger remedies this problem by compressing the air back to sea-level pressures turbo-normalizing , or even much higher turbo-charging , in order to produce rated power at high altitude.
Since the size of the turbocharger is chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitude, the turbocharger is oversized for low altitude.
The speed of the turbocharger is controlled by a wastegate. Early systems used a fixed wastegate, resulting in a turbocharger that functioned much like a supercharger.
Later systems utilized an adjustable wastegate, controlled either manually by the pilot or by an automatic hydraulic or electric system.
When the aircraft is at low altitude the wastegate is usually fully open, venting all the exhaust gases overboard. As the aircraft climbs and the air density drops, the wastegate must continuously close in small increments to maintain full power.
The altitude at which the wastegate fully closes and the engine still produces full power is the critical altitude. When the aircraft climbs above the critical altitude, engine power output decreases as altitude increases, just as it would in a naturally aspirated engine.
With older supercharged aircraft without Automatic Boost Control, the pilot must continually adjust the throttle to maintain the required manifold pressure during ascent or descent.
The pilot must also take care to avoid over-boosting the engine and causing damage. In contrast, modern turbocharger systems use an automatic wastegate, which controls the manifold pressure within parameters preset by the manufacturer.
For these systems, as long as the control system is working properly and the pilot's control commands are smooth and deliberate, a turbocharger cannot over-boost the engine and damage it.
Yet the majority of World War II engines used superchargers, because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers, which were larger, involved extra piping, and required exotic high-temperature materials in the turbine and pre-turbine section of the exhaust system.
The size of the piping alone is a serious issue; American fighters Vought F4U and Republic P used the same engine, but the huge barrel-like fuselage of the latter was, in part, needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane.
Turbocharged piston engines are also subject to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines. Pilots must make smooth, slow throttle adjustments to avoid overshooting their target manifold pressure.
In systems using a manually operated wastegate, the pilot must be careful not to exceed the turbocharger's maximum rpm.
The additional systems and piping increase an aircraft engine's size, weight, complexity and cost. A turbocharged aircraft engine costs more to maintain than a comparable normally aspirated engine.
It must be noted that all of the above WWII aircraft engines had mechanically driven centrifugal superchargers as-designed from the start, and the turbosuperchargers with Intercoolers were added, effectively as twincharger systems, to achieve desired altitude performance.
Today, most general aviation piston engine powered aircraft are naturally aspirated. Aviation gasoline was once plentiful and cheap, favoring the simple, but fuel-hungry supercharger.
As the cost of fuel has increased, the supercharger has fallen out of favor. Turbocharged aircraft often occupy a performance range between that of normally aspirated piston-powered aircraft and turbine-powered aircraft.
Despite the negative points, turbocharged aircraft fly higher for greater efficiency. High cruise flight also allows more time to evaluate issues before a forced landing must be made.
As the turbocharged aircraft climbs, however, the pilot or automated system can close the wastegate, forcing more exhaust gas through the turbocharger turbine, thereby maintaining manifold pressure during the climb, at least until the critical pressure altitude is reached when the wastegate is fully closed , after which manifold pressure falls.
With such systems, modern high-performance piston engine aircraft can cruise at altitudes up to 25, feet above which, RVSM certification would be required , where low air density results in lower drag and higher true airspeeds.
This allows flying "above the weather". In manually controlled wastegate systems, the pilot must take care not to overboost the engine, which causes detonation, leading to engine damage.
Turbocharging, which is common on diesel engines in automobiles, trucks , tractors , and boats is also common in heavy machinery such as locomotives , ships , and auxiliary power generation.
Turbochargers are also employed in certain two-stroke cycle diesel engines, which would normally require a Roots blower for aspiration.
In this specific application, mainly Electro-Motive diesel EMD , , and Series engines, the turbocharger is initially driven by the engine's crankshaft through a gear train and an overrunning clutch , thereby providing aspiration for combustion.
After combustion has been achieved, and after the exhaust gases have reached sufficient heat energy, the overrunning clutch is automatically disengaged, and the turbo-compressor is thereafter driven exclusively by the exhaust gases.
In the EMD application, the turbocharger acts as a compressor for normal aspiration during starting and low power output settings and is used for true turbocharging during medium and high power output settings.
This is particularly beneficial at high altitudes, as are often encountered on western U. It is possible for the turbocharger to revert to compressor mode momentarily during commands for large increases in engine power.
In , 21 percent of vehicles sold in North America were turbocharged, which is expected to grow to 38 percent by In Europe 67 percent of all vehicles were turbocharged in , which is expected to grow to 69 percent by Coalition for Advanced Diesel Cars is pushing for a technology neutral policy for government subsidies of environmentally friendly automotive technology.
If successful, government subsidies would be based on the Corporate Average Fuel Economy CAFE standards rather than supporting specific technologies like electric cars.